In the year 1780 the Reverend John Hutton published a small book entitled 'A Tour to the Caves in the Environs of Ingleborough and Settle'. The importance of 'A Tour to the Caves' is that it is one of the earliest books to describe in detail the underground exploration of caves in England. It appeared in various versions, but the copy I had available was the 2nd Ed. which was published in reprint in 1970. Originals are rare and very costly.
The book chronicles a journey made by the Reverend John Hutton and some unspecified companions from Kendal, through the limestone country around Ingleborough and Malham and onwards to Skipton and Leeds. Numerous karst features are described and six caves were explored and described in detail.
In 1991 Martin Hatton, Chris Fry and myself; rapidly becoming arm chair cavers as we are; decided to try and follow in the footsteps of Hutton to see how things had changed over the past 212 years. This would provide an excellent opportunity to spend a weeks holiday in the Yorkshire Dales and to visit some of those smaller, less taxing caves that had been missed out in the heyday of our caving careers!
Much of that described by Hutton in his book relates to points of general topographic interest such as the mills at Kirkby Lonsdale, Skipton Castle, Kirkstall Abbey and what was then a wonder of the new canal age at Bingley locks. Whilst it was a fascinating exercise to retrace Huttons visit to these places it is probably not appropriate to recount these exploits in a caving journal. This account therefore restricts itself to that part of the Tour which traversed the limestone country of the Yorkshire Dales.
Hutton left Kendal on a June morning travelling out along the new turnpike road to Kirkby Lonsdale. He travelled on horse back and stayed at Inns along the way. Our modern day team of travellers set out on a grey September morning following the same road (now called the A65) but our mode of conveyance was a VW Camper van which doubled as our lodgings for the journey.
Soon after passing Endmoor the white bulk of Farlton Fell (or Farlton Knott as Hutton called it) can be seen rising to the south. Hutton likens it to the rock of Gibraltar but, impressive as it maybe, its similarity to Gibraltar is limited. Hutton passed on by but in so doing missed a treat, for here are some of the finest limestone pavements to be found in the UK. They are now protected as a Site of Special Scientific Interest and together with the adjacent Hutton Roof Crags there are several square miles of pavement here. The whole area is, alas, non-cavernous.
After spending some time in Kirkby Lonsdale and its environs Hutton pressed on to Thornton in Lonsdale. Thornton-Church- Stile is now better known to the caving fraternity as The Marton Arms. The old inn here is still going strong as a favourite cavers venue and it is here that Hutton "ftopped to procure a guide, candles, lanthorn, tinder box &c. for the purpofe of feeing Yordas-cave". He travelled up Kingsdale via Thornton Force and Keld Head to Yordas Cave. The dale here would have been very different in 1780 from that which is familiar to us today. Then the river pursued a "ferpentine" course down the valley, but now it has been straightened. The old river channels can, however, still be discerned in the fields. The walls too; such a familiar feature of the Dales today; would not have been there in Huttons day since the enclosures acts which were responsible for the majority of these walls being constructed were still to follow in this part of the Dales.
Yordas Cave was the first cave that Hutton had been in to and he described it as follows in his own distinctive style:
"The roof was fo high, and the bottom and fides fo dark, that with all the light we could procure from our candles and torches, we were not able to fee the dimenfions of this cavern... Having paffed a fmall brook which one of the party called the Stygian lake, we came to the weftern fide of the cave. It is a folid perpendicular rock of black marble, embellifhed with many rude fketches, and names of perfons now long forgotten, the dates of fome being above two hundred years old. After we had proceeded twenty or thirty yards northward, the road divided itfelf into two parts... On the right was the bifhop's throne, and on the left the chapter-houfe, fo called from their refemblance to thefe appendages of a cathedral. Here we could not but lament the devaftation made in the ornaments of thefe facred places; fome Goths not long fince having defaced both throne and chapter-houfe of their pendent petrified works, which had been fome ages in forming."
It is interesting to note that Yordas was obviously well established as an informal show cave at this time complete with names for the various underground features. Problems with cave vandals (or Goths) were also apparently nothing new even at this time. The entrance to Yordas Cave is probably now very similar to that which Hutton would have seen, the recent 'disappearance' of the stone doorway that was constructed in more recent years having revealed the original natural entrance.
On our visit to the cave we were accompanied by the usual gaggle of casual visitors with hand held torches and welly boots that frequent this popular tourist spectacle. A flood flow in the stream filled the main chamber with spray and prevented exploration upstream, but in the right weather conditions the cave can be followed upstream for about 200m with two shafts to the surface. This part of the cave was beyond the competence or desires of a rural cleric and he did not proceed past the waterfall at the Chapter House, a distance of no more than 100m.
After his visit to Yordas, Hutton stayed the night at the Bay Horse Inn in Ingleton. Sadly this hostelry is no longer with us, it having been demolished after its owner had built the Ingleton Hotel opposite (now an old peoples home). The site of the Bay Horse is, however, occupied by a Victorian building containing the Post Office and 'Bernies' Cafe, another favourite haunt of the modern day caver. It is gratifying to see that, as at the Marton Arms, this traditional watering hole of our first cavers is still being frequented by their successors 200 years on!
After visiting the waterfalls of Ingleton, Hutton next turned his attention to the caves at Chapel-le-Dale where the local curate acted as his guide:
"The firft curiofity we were conducted to was Hurtlepot, about eighty yards above the chapel. It is a round deep hole, between thirty and fourty yards diameter, furrounded with rocks almoft on all fides, between thirty and fourty feet perpendicular above a deep black water... It was indeed one of the moft difmal profpects I had yet been prefented with... After viewing for fome time with horror and aftonifhment its dreadful afpect from the top, we were emboldened to defcend by a fteep and flippery paffage to the margin of this Avernian lake. What its depth is we could not learn; but from the length of time the finking ftones we threw in continued to fend up bubbles from the black abyfs, we concluded it to be very profound.
When we arrived in the fuperior regions, we purfued our journey about a hundred and fifty yards farther up a very narrow grotefque glen, over a natural bridge of limeftone above ten yards thick, having the fubterranean river Weafe or Greta underneath. When we got to the head of this gill, we were ftopt by a deep chafm called Ginglepot, at the bottom of a precipice: It is of an oblong and narrow form; an enterprizing perfon with a fteady head and active heels, regardlefs of the fatal confequences from a falfe ftep, might leap over it... In our way from Hurtlepot, we could not help remarking the ruins of two fmall artificial mounts of earth, which we were told formerly ferved as butts, when the inhabitants exercifed themfelves in the ancient military accomplifhment of archery."
Gingle Pot and the grotesque glen remain much as they were but the butts have long since disappeared. However, the archer lives on as a sculpture which has been set up at the side of the road leading to Gill Head. Whether the artist was aware of the old archery tradition in the area is not known but the presence of this iron sculpture; a curiosity in itself in such a remote location; is an intriguing connection with the past.
The history of this statue is itself of interest to the caver since on 27th August 1983 it was thrown into Hurtle Pot by vandals to be later recovered by cave divers. It bears a plaque which states that it was created by Charles l'Anson and "Time will tell if the spirit of the BOGGARD of HURTLE POT is now enshrined in the statue".
Hurtle Pot is still as dark and dismal as it was in 1780 but steps have been cut intp the "flippery paffage" to aid cave divers who have in recent years been exploring Huttons underground river Wease. It is interesting to muse that the prospect of cave diving would no doubt have been quite incomprehensible to gentlemen of the 18th century.
Weathercote Cave now lies in the grounds of the elegant Weathercote House and is accessed through a doorway in a stone wall. During the 19th and 20th century it was a regular item on the tourist itinerary to Ingleton and visitors were able to descend steps to the bottom of the pothole. Today it is closed to casual visitors but can be visited by arrangement with the owner of Weathercote House. Hutton found it:
"the moft furprifing natural curiofity of the kind in the ifland of Great Britain. It is a ftupendous fubterranean cataract in a huge cave... On our approach to its brink, our ears and eyes were equally aftonifhed with the fublime and terrible... The cave is of a lozenge form and divided in two by a rugged and grotefque arch of limeftone rock: The whole length from fouth to north is about fixty yards, and the breadth about half its length... Having defcended with caution from rock to rock, we paffed under the arch and came into the great cave, where we ftood fome time in filent aftonifhment to view this amazing cafcade. The perpendicular height of the north corner of this cave was found by an exact admeafurement to be thirty fix yards... The cave is filled with fpray that arifes from the water dafhing againft the bottom... An huge rock that had fometime been rolled down by the impetuofity of the ftream, and was fufpended between us and the top of the cafcade, like the coffin of Mahomet at Medina, had an excellent effect in the fcene... We were tempted to defcend into a dark chamber at the very bottom of the cave, covered over with a ceiling of rock about thirty yards thick, and from thence behind the cafcade, at the expenfe of having our cloaths a little wet and dirtied, when the noife became tremendous, and the idea for perfonal fafety awful and alarming... At the bottom we were fhewn a crevice where we might defcend to the fubterranean channel, which would lead us to Ginglepot, and perhaps much further; we were alfo fhewn above, a fhallow paffage between the ftrata of rocks, along which we might crawl to the orifice out of which the cafcade iffued, where it was high enough to walk erect, and where we might have the honour of making the firft expedition for difcoveries; no creature having yet proceeded in that paffage out of fight of daylight: But as we were apprehenfive the pleafure would not be compenfated by the dangers and difficulties to be encountered in our progrefs, we did not attempt to explore thofe new regions."
It is interesting to note that Hutton probably originated the name of Mohamets coffin which is in common use today for the large rock at the head of the waterfall. The passages where Hutton declined to explore have now been explored for over 700m.
Great Douk & Ingleborough
Hutton next made his way to Great Douk Cave:
"Douk-cove is fomething fimilar to that at Weathercoate, but not heightened fo much with the vaft and terrible: The cavity indeed is longer and wider, but not deeper; the rocks not fo high and fteep, except on the eaft fide, where the hawks and other birds build their nefts, not dreading the approach of human foot. The ftream of this cafcade does not fall above five or fix yards, and is not fo large and fluent as the former; though like it, is immediately abforbed amongft the rocks beneath. The fubterranean paffage out of which it iffued is very curious. By the help of a ladder we afcended and went along it to fome diftance by means of candles: When we had gone about forty or fifty yards, we came to a chafm ten or twelve yards in depth from the furface, through which we could fee broad day. How far we could have proceeded, we know not; we returned, after we had been about a hundred yards."
Great Douk is now one of the most popular novice caves in Yorkshire. The fine stream passage can be followed well past Huttons limit of exploration for a total of about 900m in a fine clean washed passage formed under a single bedding plane. It gradually becomes lower and lower until a flat out crawl in water leads to an exit amongst the limestone clints at Middle Washfold Caves.
After his exploration of Douk Cave, Hutton turned his attention to Ingleborough which he ascended directly from Chapel-le-Dale on its steep northern side. After "many a wearey and flippery ftep", he reached the summit and admired the extensive views therefrom. Today the going is easier due to the boardwalk that has been constructed over the boggy ground of what is now the High Lot Nature Reserve. It has been built to prevent the erosion caused by the huge popularity that this mountain and its neighbours endure today.
The summit of Ingleborough would appear to be somewhat changed from 1780. Hutton talks of the annual horse races held here but erosion of the soil on the summit has rendered it a stony wasteland today quite unsuitable for this activity. The remains of the old beacon tower and watchhouse mentioned by Hutton are gone, probably having been used to construct a circular tower or 'Hospice' in 1830, itself now but a ruin. Hutton corrects the height of the hill given on his map (1760 yards - a convenient mile high) to 3987 feet. Both heights were way out, Ingleborough being a mere 2373 feet high.
The descent was via Mere Gill beck, referred to by Hutton as Fairweather Sike, to "Meir-gill", "Barfoot-wive's-hole" and "Hardrawkin". None of these sites were, however, described in detail.
Gatekirk, Greensett & Whernside
Before heading for Whernside, Hutton probably spent the night somewhere in the area although his journal is not specific on this point. If not in Ingleton, it is nice to think that he may have stayed at the Hill Inn; one of the other great watering holes of Yorkshire cavers. Strangely he makes no mention of the Inn; although being constructed in 1615 it was no doubt open for business in 1780. The Hill Inn has recently become 'Ye Olde', a lamentable and seemingly unnecessary change.
Gatekirk Cave has probably changed the least of all the caves visited by Hutton. Lying as it does off the footpath, it is little visited. It is, however, of great interest and scenic charm:
"The brook which runs through it forms a fine natural bafon of tranfparent water at its egrefs, where we entered the cave, gradually increafing in depth till about five or fix feet at moft... Over the cave, where the water flows, is another fubterranean paffage, of about twenty four feet in length, and from three to ten in height: It enters the other obliquely, and looks like a natural orcheftra, and where indeed a band of mufic would exhibit to great advantage to an audience below. The roof is at leaft fix yards high at the firft entrace... From the roof were pendent large petrifactions in every grotefque fhape; fome like hams, others like neat's tongues, many like the heads and various parts of different animals. As we proceeded along we met with feveral bye ftreets or lanes, down fome of which came tinkling little currents; but they feemed not to admit a paffenger with eafe to any great diftance: As we went along we obferved that the way divided for a confiderable part of the whole length into two main ftreets, which united again, made by the current dividing above into two ftreams. After we had gone about feventy yards we met with an orifice, which eafily admitted us above ground".
Inside the low entrance the cave attains sizeable dimensions and there are dry as well as wet routes to be explored. The roof pendants are in fact tuffacious stalagtites and remain largely intact. The through trip is only about 60m and the total passage length about 200m.
Having visited Gatekirk Hutton took the old road that leads over the moors to Dentdale and passed through the ancient settlement of Winterscales. All of the buildings here predate Hutton and the settlement is probably little changed since those times. The road is now little more than a footpath but well used since it forms part of the overpopular 'Three Peaks Walk'. Hutton is not specific about his route onto the mountain but our modern day party followed a line up the hill past the attractive falls of Force Gill. The bridge over the railway is probably unique; it actually being a very short tunnel which was left over the railway cutting. Some excellent quality stone work channels the stream as it crosses the bridge.
A thin band of limestone outcrops on the side of Whernside and forms a level shaft beyond which are two tarns. Water issuing from these tarns sinks underground briefly as it crosses the limestone outcrop. It was here that Hutton sought Greensett Cave (or Greenside cave as he called it). Its entrance is concealed amongst the pavements:
"The mouth was wide and high, and the road rugged; but the roof gradually funk, or the bottom arofe, till it was troublefome getting along, foon after we were out of the fight of day. A fmall brook ran along the bottom, as in the other caves, but there were none of the curious petrifications we faw in moft of them to delight the eye."
Greensett Cave is a real collectors piece. The entrance has evidently collapsed since 1780 as entry is now via a tight squeeze amongst boulders that leads into a large boulder strewn passage. Although there are no formations the ceiling of this shallow passage is much fractured and bands of white tuffa have formed in the fracture lines giving a curious effect. The passage soon becomes low and then splits into two. One branch is an aqueous rift that eventually leads out to a surface opening. The other branch is dry and after a deal of crawling and scrambling also leads out to the surface. The whole system can be explored to about 500m with no less than 8 entrances.
After exploring the cave, our route, as Huttons, took us straight up the steep east face of Whernside to the summit, but whereas Hutton took a course back towards Gearstones, we took a route which brought us via Bruntscar back to Chapel-le-Dale. Whernside alas has suffered more than any other of the Three Peaks from erosion and major engineering works are now in progress to try and preserve the path from the feet of the massed hordes.
Gearstones was an Inn in Huttons day but alas no more. It is, however, still used as accommodation for outdoor pursuits. In the little valley known as Thorns Gill below Gearstones lies Katnot Cave also variously known as Cupnick and Capnut cave. Hutton referred to it as Catknot-hole.
"The entrance into it is not above three or four feet high, but almoft immediately encrefes to as many yards. We had not gone out of the fight of day, before we were obliged to wade up to the mid-leg a few yards, through a little pool made by the rill, that comes out of this cave. The paffage grew narrower, but wide enough to walk along with eafe, except in one or two places, where we were in danger of daubing our cloaths with red flime. We proceeded above a quarter of a mile, when the road grew wider, but the roof was fo low, that we could not go on with eafe and pleafure: Perhaps if we had muftered humility and fortitude enough, to have crouched and crawled a little, we might have come to where the roof again would have been as high as we should have defired. In fome places there were alleys out of the main ftream, but not exceeding to any great diftance, so as to admit of paffengers. The rocks jutted out, and were pendent in every grotefque and fantaftic fhape; moft of them were covered with a fine coating of fpar, that looked like alabaster, while ificles of various fhapes and colours were pendent from the roof; all generated by the fine particles of ftone that exift in the water, which tanfudes through the roof and fides, and leaves them adhering to the rock in their defcent to the bottom. The various coloured reflections made by the fpars and petriffactions that abounded in every part, entertained the eye with the greateft novelty and variety; while at the fame time, the different notes made by the rill in its little cafcade, and reverberated from the hollow rocks, amufed the ear with a new fort of rude and fubterranean mufic, but well fuited to our flow and gloomy march."
Katnot is a superb stream cave totalling nearly 700m in length. The entrance passage contains much red ocre which has been used by countless visitors to daub their names on the walls. Further in, the passage becomes a fine clean washed canyon which gradually decreases in height until one is forced to grovel in the water. Further progress becomes seemingly pointless and, as with Hutton, the cave was not pursued to its bitter end.
Alum Pot & Long Churn
If John Hutton were alive today I am sure he would be totally amazed at the huge popularity Alum Pot and its associated caves now achieves. On our visit there were no less than 14 mini bus loads of school journey kids and sundry other cavers swarming all over the place, and there were underground traffic jams at the instructors favourite tight squeezes in Long Churn.
These caves are justifiably popular since Alum Pot itself is a spectacular example of a Yorkshire Pothole and the Upper and Lower Long Churn Caves offer some superb yet relatively safe and easy sections of cave passage to both amuse and inspire the novice caver. Huttons view of 'Alan or Alumn-pot' was as follows:
"It is a round fteep hole in the limeftone rock, about eight or ten yards in diameter, and of a tremendous depth, fomewhat refembling Eden-hole, in Derbyshire... We plummed it to the depth of a hundred and fixty five feet, fourty three of which were in water, and this in an extraordinary dry feafon... Only a low mound of earth furrounds its brim; for a ftone wall would anfwer no other purpofe, than to afford the curious traveller materials to throw in for his amufement... The waters run from its bottom above a mile underground, and then appear again in the open air, below the village of Selfide."
Here again it is clear that the enclosures had not reached this part of Yorkshire for there was only an earth bank around the shaft. The earth mound mentioned by Hutton can still be clearly seen but it has now been supplemented by a stone wall. Hutton seems to have been of the opinion that the bottom of Alum Pot contained standing water and his plumbing exercises obviously only reached the base of the shaft at its shallowest point. Since he was probably unable to see the bottom he was apparently somewhat confused about the subterranean details of the pit.
It is evident from Huttons description of the nearby Long Churn caves that they had been much visited before his visit as indeed they are today. Many of the features of the cave had already been named such as the well known Dr Banisters Hand Basin (although we are not told who Dr Banister was) and it is apparent that the connection to Alum Pot from Lower Long Churn was well known. It is not inconceivable that explorations of Alum Pot had already taken place via this route. This was Huttons longest underground exploration during the course of which he must have suffered considerable discomfort since several deep pools bar progress in the lower cave towards St Pauls.
"After having excited the feveral paffions of curiofity, dread, and horrour, from the negative knowledge we got of the capacity and depth of this huge pot, we went a little way higher up the mountain, and we came to another hiatus called Long-churn. We defcended down till we came to the fubterranean brook: We firft afcended the cavern, down which the ftream ran, proceeding in a weftern direction, for at leaft, as we imagined, a quarter of a mile, till we came to a crevice which admitted us into our native region. We meafured the diftance between the two extremities above ground, and found it two hundred and fourty one yards, but it muft be nearly double that diftance along the paffage below, on account of all the turnings and windings. The petrifications here were the moft numerous of any we had yet feen, few people coming hither to break them off or deface them. When we were almoft arrived at the weftern extremity, we came to a fine round bafon of pellucid water, from three to twelve feet deep, known by the name of Dr Banifter's handbafon. A lofty, fpaceous, and elegant dome is placed immediately over it, which nicely correfponds to the hollowed receptacle at the bottom: Onto this bafon a rivulet falls down a fteep rock about above fix feet high, which is very dangerous to get up, and muft be done at the expence of a wet fkin, except a ladder is taken along with the party, or the waters are lefs fluent than when we were there: There is alfo fome danger left the adventurer fhould fall back, and have his bones broken by circumjacent rocks, or be drowned in the doctor's bafon. After having furmounted this obftacle, and proceeded fome yards farther, we were favoured with an egrefs into our own element, as was before obferved; no unwelcome change, after having been fo long excluded from it."
"After having refted ourfelves a little, we returned to the chafm, where we firft entered Long-churn, and defcended again, purfued the rivulet eaftward along another extenfive fubterranean paffage, called Dicken-pot, which flopes and winds by degrees till it enters the ghastly and tremendous Alan-pot, at leaft fo near, as either to have feen the water that ftagnates at its bottom, or the light that is admitted into this gaping monfter of nature."
Selside saw the end of Huttons caving explorations and from hereon his investigations were strictly terrestrial. From Selside he continued on down Ribblesdale to Horton. Hutton took a path on the east side of the valley probably along the road which now terminates at High Birkwith, but we took the road on the other side of the valley. Hutton expresses interest in the piles of stones or "hurders" which he found to be of gritstone. These piles of stones (no doubt resulting from field clearance) no longer exist; probably having been incorporated into the walls. The gritstone derives from the boulder clay which is banked up on the easter side of the valley.
At Horton a detour was taken up the lane towards Penyghent to view Hull and Hunt pots. Hull pot is likened to an "old Gothic caftle, the high ruinous walls of which were left standing after the roof was fallen in." An old quarry may be a more accurate likeness. It is recorded that the water from Hunt pot emerges at Douk Ghyll scar and that from Hull pot at Brants Gill head.
"But what is moft extraordinary, thefe fubterranean brooks crofs each other underground without mixing waters, the bed of one being on a ftratum above the other: This was difcovered by the muddy water after fheep wafhing, going down the one paffage, and the feeds or hufks of oats that were fent down the other."
This early hydrology is not strictly accurate but it is interesting to note that the course of the underground waters in this area has been a subject of local interest for a long time. Douk Ghyll in fact appears to act as a flood overflow for Brants Gill but the details of the hydrological system are still something of a mystery.
Settle was reached after a journey down the valley taking in the scenic waterfalls at Stainforth and Catrigg. From Settle, which interestingly didn't have the Victorian Town Hall building cluttering up the town square at that time, a further detour was made to the famous Ebbing and Flowing well at the roadside under Giggleswick scar. Fortunately the old road has been bypassed and is now a quiet backwater, but until recently, viewing this was a life threatening experience. Since Huttons time the well has been built around with massive 'rustic' stonework and is now sadly very neglected. The spring is not as powerful as in the past and the effect is probably less persistent than it was. However, we were in luck, as we were able to observe the well ebbing and flowing; though only just. The water level in the tank reciprocated by only about 1 inch on a 60 second cycle. Hutton was also fortunate:
"We were in luck, feeing it reciprocate feveral times while we were there, and not ftaying above an hour... We were informed that if the weather was either very droughty or very wet, the phaenomenon ceafed."
Huttons journey to Malham probably took him along the old road; now but a footpath; past Stockdale and Pikedaw but our mode of transport forced us to take the route over High Side to Kirby Malham.
"Malham-cave (or vulgarly Maum-cove) though it properly has nothing of the cave about it. It is a fine amphitheatre of perpendicular limeftone rock on the fide of the moor, at leaft a hundred yards high in the middle... This is the higheft perpendicular precipice I have ever feen, and I think not enough known or admired for its greatnefs and regularity."
Hutton has got his wish. Malham now swarms with tourists in the summer to view the precipice as well as the nearby Goredale scar. The acres of car parks, well ordered surfaced footpaths and crocodiles of tourists detract somewhat from the scenic grandure of the area. Hutton was, however, also impressed by Goredale:
"If a painter wanted to have embellifhed his drawing of his romantic fcene with fome grotefque object, he could have added nothing which would have fuited his purpofe better, if nature had not done the work for him."
Across the moors above the scar the tourists are left behind and some excellent limestone scenery is to be found on the walk to Malham Tarn. The lake here has been enlarged by the addition of a low dam since Huttons day but the scene probably remains much as it was then.
From Malham Tarn, Huttons route took him along Mastiles Lane to Kilnsey and thence to Grassington. Unable to follow Mastiles Lane in the van, we rejoined Huttons route at Grassington and then went on to sample the delights of the ancient castle at Skipton. Leaving the limestone country well behind the final day of our journey took us to seek out other sights mentioned in the book. We inspected the canal aqueduct at Kildwick, retraced the old road at Steeton and finally visited the impressive ruins of Kirkstall Abbey before reaching journeys end in Leeds.
1781 J Hutton "A Tour to the Caves in the Environs of Ingleborough and Settle" (2nd Ed) (1970 reprint by SR Publishers)
1818 W Westall "Views of the Caves near Ingleton, Goredale Scar and Malham Cove in Yorkshire"
1874 W Boyd Dawkins "Cave Hunting"
1897 E A Martel "Irelande et Cavernes Anglaises"
1904 W L Carter "Underground Waters of N.W. W Cash (Ed) Yorkshire" Vol XV Pt II Proc Yorks Geol & Polytech Soc
1923 F Riley "The Settle District & N.W. Yorkshire Dales"
1930 G E Clarke "A Descriptive Guide to the Glens, Caverns, Waterfalls and Places of Interest at the Foot of Ingleborough"
1932 E A Baker "Caving: Episodes of Underground Exploration"
1946 J L Hamer "The Falls & Caves of Ingleton"
1953 N Thornber
A & R Stride
J O Myers "Britain Underground"
1959 N Thornber "Pennine Underground"
1961 W R Mitchell "The Hollow Mountains"
1963 G Stevens Survey of Yordas Cave
1971 T R Shaw John Hutton 1740?-1806 Studies in Speleology Vol 2 Pt 3
1972 A J Milner "The Caves of the Alum Pot Area"
1974 A Waltham "Limestones and Caves of N.W. England"
1975/6 A & D Brook
G M Davies
M H Long "Northern Caves"
Vol 1 Penyghent & Malham
Vol 2 Ingleborough
Vol 4 Whernside & Gregareth
1987 A Waltham "Caves and Karst in the M Davies Yorkshire Dales"
1987 A Waltham "Yorkshire Dales: Limestone Country"
The use of an 'f' or 'long s' instead of the modern 's' was a typographical form in common use in the 18th century. The 'f' was used in all instances except at the end of a word where the conventional 's' was used.